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Comparison of the nature and landscape protection´s systems in the Switzerland and in the Czech Republic, focused on the special spatial protection

Abstract: Parts of the Czech Republic´s and Switzerland´s territory are subjects of various institutes of special nature and landscape protection. In Czech republic it is about 12 500 km2, that means almost 16% of overall area of the state. In Switzerland there is 161 locations protected as “landscape and natural monument of national importance” (19% of state’s area). There are also another more than 500 relatively small areas protected as natural reservations (in total 2% of state’s area), which are mostly shielded by other than the state natural and landscape protection. The paper compares the systems and the legislation of nature and landscape protection in the Czech Republic and in the Switzerland. The paper is focused on territorial protection in both these countries. Many similarities can be found in the comparison of the legislative framework for nature and landscape protection in Switzerland and the Czech Republic. Both states enshrine these protection in their constitutions and declare the right of their citizens to sustainable and healthy environment. Both countries specify the nature and landscape protection in the specialized law. But Switzerland´s specialized law provides together the nature and monument protection. Which is dealt with separately in the Czech legislation. Both countries also established a specialized organization, whose primary responsibility is the supervision and performance management of the nature protection. In the Czech Republic it is the AOPK and in Switzerland the FOEN. Quite distinct from the Czech system but typical for Switzerland is the involvement of the public in the process. And not just in the process of area declaration, but also in the future management and development. The parks of national importance can only be declared after the agreement of all stakeholders, including the public. This should ensure non-collisional land development, financing and operation of the park. There are considerable differences in the use of contractual nature protection, which is legislatively possible in both of states. For the Czech Republic is also almost unused, there is currently only 28 sites protected by contract. Organizations such as Pro Natura contribute significantly to the functioning of nature and landscape protection in Switzerland (they take care for the protection of 600 nature reserves).

ŠOVAROVÁ, Daniela (2015). Komparace systému ochrany přírody a krajiny ve Švýcarsku a České republice, se zaměřením na zvláštní územní ochranu. In: Pavel Holubec, ed. Člověk, stavba a územní plánování 8. ČVUT v Praze, Fakulta stavební pp. 116-126. ISBN 978-80-01-05655-4. ISSN 2336-7695.