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The Beginnings of Urbanization and the Emergence of Cities in Italy

Abstract: At the turn of the first millennium B.C., the End of the Bronze Age and start of Early Iron Age, there is a key change in the settlement system in ancient Italy. Scattered villages-pastoral settlements on the onset of early Iron Age change and create a proto-urban settlement cores that gradually udergo further urbanization and stratification. Ultimately, these centers could (but did not have to) develop into an urbanized settlement center - the city that has become a symbol not only of the then civilized world. To well known and fairly explored cities in Etruria was recently added the knowledge of Latium and somewhat peripheral regions of Umbria and southeastern Italy. Each region is unique and urbanization in them was uneven compared to the rest. This may be due to their different degree of "civilization", but also due to natural conditions and different historical development. In this work I will introduce a general and clear summary of the available evidence about changing settlement system in Italic tribes (Latin, Umbri, Sabines, Samnites) from scattered village-herding at the end of the Bronze Age settlements into the urbanized cores of early Iron Age. Furthermore, I will describe the different phases of urbanization, running from the 10th to the 8th century B.C. of pre-urban society over a period of abrupt changes associated with the rise of proto-urban centers, to the final creation of urban systematization and cities themselves. Geographically, I will focus on the key area inhabited by the tribe of Latins and other areas of Italics, for example: Umbri and Samnites who have a different course of urbanization. Ultimately, these urbanization processes will lead to formation of primary settlement units in the Italic areas, one of which one city (Rome) will ultimately take over the entire Mediterranean.

ŠTĚPÁNEK, Tomáš (2017). Počátky urbanizace a vznik měst v Itálii. In: Jiří Kugl, ed. Člověk, stavba a územní plánování 10. ČVUT v Praze, Fakulta stavební pp. 158-176. ISBN 978-80-01-06319-4. ISSN 2336-7695.